ECSAS 2023 – Turin 26-29 July

India and The Ganga Waters Treaty: Analysis of the water sharing mechanism


Lad Rahul - Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Geography, PUNE, India


46 – Sustainable Regeneration of Water Infrastructures: An Invitation to Forge Interdisciplinary Governance & Policy Design Thinking


 India and Bangladesh shares 54 rivers between them. Notwithstanding, The Ganga Waters Treaty remains the sole water sharing mechanism that specially focuses on the sharing of Ganga water during lean season. As per the treaty, Farakka would be the water distribution point between the two countries. The present study is based on last 10 years flow data (2012-2021) of river Ganga at the point of Farakka. The flow data analysis revealed that the sharing of water between India and Bangladesh is in accordance with formula laid down in the treaty. The analysis further shows that India has received less quantum of water as compared to historical average (1949-1988) given in the treaty for almost one-third 10-day intervals. The trends in the water availability significantly confirms that India, an upper riparian, has mostly managed to ensure the required flow level at Farakka. As per the study, four-fifth of the treaty period witnessed higher quantum of water at Hardinge Bridge in Bangladesh as compared to flow released at Farakka. It indicates that despite of fluctuations in flow availability, India has largely managed to uphold the treaty mechanism. Finally, the study concludes that Indian approach to execute the water sharing mechanism was driven by altruistic approach instead of hegemony.